Elk travel time [displacement] was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding.
A comprehensive approach for managing human activities to meet elk objectives should include careful management of off-road recreational activities, particularly ATV riding and mountain biking, which caused the largest reductions in feeding time and increases in travel time.
Steve Bennett photo.
Logging road landslide into Sullivan Creek bull trout habitat!
Keith Hammer photo.